Explain the purpose of space exploration including:
– historical reasons
– immediate goals in terms of specific knowledge benefits related to Earth resources, technology, and new products

There are many purposes of space exploration.

Historical reasons for the purposes of space exploration are to advance in scientific research, and national prestige uniting different nations and ensuring the survival of humanity.

The goal of space exploration is to extend our presence beyond low-Earth orbit.

Some of the benefits of space exploration are that we can have more advanced robotics and AI as robots navigate the surface of Mars and beyond, medical innovation, and combatting climate change.

Choose one topic below and with it undertake option one or two:

– a commercial or scientific rocket (Ariane, Delta, Soyuz, Proton, Zenit etc.)
– the NASA Space Shuttlethe International Space Stationa specific satellite (e.g., Envisat, Cassini, Aurora, etc.)
– an unmanned space probe

Option one
– Describe the topic’s primary mission purpose; explain the functions of the component parts, together with a brief history and accomplishments of a specific mission and what was learned from that mission.

Option two
– Build a scale model of or about the topic, either from a commercial kit or from plans available from the Internet or model clubs and shops.

Option 1 – The NASA Space Shuttle

The NASA Space Shuttle has several purposes and is primarily used for scientific research, where astronauts conduct scientific experiments in microgravity. Apart from that, it is also used to test technology that will be used for space exploration in the future.


Brief History of the Space Shuttle:

Some of the accomplishments of space shutters are:

  1. Space Access – The space shuttle is a reusable way for us to access space.
  2.  Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) – The shuttle plays a big role in the creation of the ISS, that serves as a primary crew and cargo vehicle for ISS missions.
  3.  Research and Science – The space shuttles paved the way for research and science, contributing to our understanding in various fields.

Discuss and demonstrate two of the following:

  • the law of action and reaction in the context of rockets and zero or low-gravity environments
  • how rocket engines work, and their lift-off and re-entry procedures
  • how satellites stay in orbit and the different types of orbits they use

Satellites stay in orbit around a celestial body, such as the Earth, and balance their forward motion with the gravitational pull of the body they are orbiting.

Here are some different types of orbits they use:

  1.  Low Earth Orbit, often used for Earth observation
  2.  Medium Earth Orbit, where navigational satellites are placed
  3.  Polar Orbit, which allows global coverage of the planet.
  • how satellite pictures of the Earth, planets and their moons are made and transmitted
  1. Imaging Instruments – satellites have many imaging capabilities. Such instruments can include cameras and spectrometers.
  2. Image capture – the imagining instruments capture data which is typically in the form of digital images or sensor readings.
  3. Data Transmission – The data are transferred using relay satellites or frequency bands
  4. Data distribution – once the data is received, it is made available to the public

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